How do you get tropical spastic paraparesis?

How do you get tropical spastic paraparesis?

Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1–associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) is a slowly progressive viral immune-mediated disorder of the spinal cord caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). It causes spastic weakness of both legs.

What is spastic paraparesis?

Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a general term for a group of rare inherited disorders that cause weakness and stiffness in the leg muscles. Symptoms gradually get worse over time. It’s also known as familial spastic paraparesis or Strümpell-Lorrain syndrome.

What is HTLV associated myelopathy?

Overview. HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (HAM) is a slowly progressive, chronic disease of the spinal cord seen in some people infected with the HTLV-1 virus, which results in painful stiffness and weakness of the legs. HAM is also referred to as chronic progressive myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP).

What are the symptoms of ham?

Signs and symptoms of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) vary but may include:

  • Slowly progressive weakness and spasticity of one or both legs.
  • Exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia)
  • Stiff muscles.
  • Muscle contractions in the ankle (ankle clonus)
  • Lower back pain.

What are the signs and symptoms of HTLV?

Initial symptoms are subtle and include gait problems, unexplained falls, low back pain, constipation, urinary urgency/incontinence and numbness or pain in the lower limbs. Over the years, progressive leg weakness ensues followed by the exacerbation of the urinary and sensory symptoms.

What is haam disease?

Prognosis. HAM/TSP is a progressive neurological disorder that is rarely fatal. Most people live for decades after the diagnosis. Complications of the disease — such as severe urinary tract infections and/or pressure sores on the skin — can lead to a poorer prognosis.

Is spastic paraparesis inherited?

The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a large group of inherited neurologic disorders that share the primary symptom of difficulty walking due to muscle weakness and muscle tightness (spasticity) in the legs. There are more than 80 different genetic types of HSP.

Where does the term spastic come from?

The word is derived via Latin from the Greek spastikos (“drawing in”, “tugging” or “shaking uncontrollably”). Colloquially, spastic can be pejorative; though severity of this differs between the United States and the United Kingdom.

Is HTLV serious?

HTLV-1 is a type of human immunodeficiency virus. It causes no symptoms in a vast majority of infected people. However, it can lead to serious illnesses in some.

How do I get rid of HTLV?

There is no cure or treatment for HTLV-1 and it is considered a lifelong condition; however, most (95%) infected people remain asymptomatic (show no symptoms) throughout life.

What is tropical spastic paraplegia?

For several decades the term “tropical spastic paraparesis” (TSP) has been used to describe a chronic and progressive disease of the nervous system that affects adults living in equatorial areas of the world and causes progressive weakness, stiff muscles, muscle spasms, sensory disturbance, and sphincter dysfunction.

What is Ham virus?

The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. It was first studied in 1977. The virus can cause adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) and progressive nervous system condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

Which is the most common cause of tropical spastic paraparesis?

TSP is now called HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis or HAM/TSP. The HTLV-1 retrovirus is thought to cause at least 80 percent of the cases of HAM/TSP by impairing the immune system.

Is there a cure for Tropical spastic paraparesis?

There is no established treatment program for HAM/TSP. Corticosteroids may relieve some symptoms, but aren’t likely to change the course of the disorder. Clinical studies suggest that interferon alpha provides benefits over short periods and some aspects of disease activity may be improved favorably using interferon beta.

How does hereditary spastic paraparesis affect the body?

Paraparesis that is linked to genetic factors is called hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). It causes the long nerves in the spine to degenerate over time. These spinal nerves control muscle tone and movement in the lower body. Damage to these nerves can result in the gradual impairment of movement, usually in both legs.

What are the symptoms of HTLV-1 associated spastic paraparesis?

Symptoms 1 Slowly progressive weakness and spasticity of one or both legs 2 Exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia) 3 Stiff muscles 4 Muscle contractions in the ankle (ankle clonus) 5 Lower back pain 6 A ‘weak’ bladder and/or urinary incontinence 7 Minor sensory changes, especially burning or prickling sensations and loss of vibration sense More