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Why has the council-manager form of city government replaced the mayor-council form in many cities?
Since it relies on candidates being elected at-large, minority populations are often unable to elect candidates of their choice. In addition, it may concentrate too much power in individual commissioners, who also manage city departments. The council–manager form became the preferred alternative for progressive reform.
How does the council-manager government differ from the mayor-council government?
The fundamental difference is in who has the legal authority to hire and fire city employees. In a council-manager system, the manager has that power. (There are limited exceptions. In a mayor-council system, the council collectively has the power.
Why was the council manager form of government created?
Born out of the U.S. progressive reform movement at the turn of the 20th century, the council-manager system was designed to combat corruption and unethical activity in local government by promoting effective management within a transparent, responsive, and accountable structure.
How is the city manager of a city chosen?
City managers, sometimes known as city administrators, are generally appointed by mayors or councils based on their education and experience in local government. Mayors are elected by their constituents or selected from among members of the council through an election or rotation.
Where are variations of mayor-council form of government?
Cities with variations in the mayor-council form of government are New York, New York; Houston, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Characteristics include: Voters elect individual commissioners to a small governing board
Where are most of the city councils located?
Generally speaking, mayor-council governments are more prominent in older and larger cities, as well as cities located in the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest. In fact, of the 30 largest U.S. cities, only nine are council-manager, with all but one of those nine cities being in California, Nevada, Arizona, or Texas.