Silver sulphate (Ag_{2}SO_{4}) is an inorganic silver salt, while Nitric acid (HNO_{3}) is an inorganic mineral oxoacid of nitrogen .Let us know more about their reaction mechanism.

**Ag _{2}SO_{4}**

**is a white inorganic solid with low solubility in water. It is a neutral salt with weak oxidizing powers. Fresh HNO**

_{3}is colorless and a powerful oxidizing agent. It is a common reagent in laboratories and used in manufacturing fertilizers.In this section, let us focus on HNO_{3 }+ Ag_{2}SO_{4} reaction facts like the products formed, intermolecular forces involved, type of reaction, reaction enthalpy etc.

## What is the product of HNO_{3} and Ag_{2}SO_{4}?

**Silver nitrate (AgNO _{3}) and sulphuric acid (H_{2}SO_{4}) are formed when Ag_{2}SO_{4} reacts with concentrated HNO_{3 }. **

**2HNO _{3 }+ **

**Ag**

_{2}SO_{4 }**—->**

**2**

**AgNO**

_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4}## What type of reaction is HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4}?

**HNO _{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4} is a type of double decomposition reaction and acid formation reaction, as the cations and anions of the reactants exchange places to form silver nitrate salt and sulphuric acid.**

## How to balance HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4}?

**The general chemical reaction of H****NO _{3}**

**+**

**Ag**

_{2}SO_{4}**can be represented as**–

**Ag _{2}SO_{4}**

**+ HNO**

_{3}**=**

**AgNO**

_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4}

**Given below are the steps to balance the above equation –**

**Determine the numbers of each element involved in the reaction, in both the reactant and product side.**

Elements | Reactant side | Product side |
---|---|---|

H | 1 | 2 |

N | 1 | 1 |

O | 7 | 7 |

S | 1 | 1 |

Ag | 2 | 1 |

**Count of the elements in the reaction**

**We find that the number of moles of hydrogen, nitrogen and silver atoms in the reactant and product side are unequal.****Add 2 moles of HNO**_{3}in the reactant side and 2 moles of AgNO_{3}in the product side to balance the number of H, N and Ag atoms.**Thus, the overall balanced chemical reaction is as follows –****Ag**_{2}SO_{4}_{ }**+****2HNO**>_{3 }—-**2****AgNO**_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4}

## HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 }titration

**We cannot titrate HNO _{3 }+ Ag_{2}SO_{4} as Ag_{2}SO_{4 } is insoluble in aqueous solution. However, by using the solubility product (K_{sp}) constant of Ag_{2}SO_{4 } and knowing the concentration at which the sulphate ions would precipitate out of the solution, we can determine the concentration of Ag^{2+} ions.**

## HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 }net ionic equation

**The net ionic equation between HNO _{3} + **

**Ag**

_{2}SO_{4}

_{ }**is represented as –**

**Ag _{2}SO_{4 }**

**(s)**

**=**

**2**

**Ag**

^{+}**(aq)**

**+ SO**

_{4}

^{2-}**(aq)**

_{ }**T****he following steps are the steps to arrive at the net ionic equation:**

**Write the balanced undissociated chemical equation and the physical states****(s, l, aq, g)****of each mole involved in the reaction.****2HNO**_{3 }**(aq)****+****Ag**_{2}SO_{4 }**(s)**=_{ }**2****AgNO**_{3 }**(aq)****+ H**_{2}SO_{4}**(aq)****Aqueous forms of strong acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions, whereas solid, liquid and gaseous substances do not dissociate.****Now, represent the complete ionic equation of HNO**_{3}+**Ag**_{2}SO_{4}**as –****Ag**_{2}SO_{4 }**(s)****+ 2H**^{+ }**(aq)****+ 2NO**_{3}^{–}**(aq)****=****2****Ag**^{+}**(aq)****+****2****NO**_{3}^{–}**(aq)****+****2****H**^{+}**(aq)****+ SO**_{4}^{2-}**(aq)****Remove the spectator ions (H**^{ + }and**NO**_{3}^{–}**), which appear on both sides of the equation from the complete ionic equation, to get the net ionic equation as –****Ag**_{2}SO_{4 }**(s)****=****2****Ag**^{+}**(aq)****+ SO**_{4}^{2-}**(aq)**

## HNO_{3}+ Ag_{2}SO_{4 }conjugate pairs

**The conjugate pairs of HNO _{3} and Ag_{2}SO_{4} are as follows** –

**The conjugate base of the acid HNO**_{3}is NO_{3}^{–}.**Conjugate pair of SO**_{4}^{2-}= HSO_{4}^{–}**Conjugate pair of HSO**_{4}^{–}= H_{2}SO_{4}

## HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 }intermolecular forces

**The intermolecular forces present in H NO_{3}_{ }and Ag_{2}SO_{4} are given below** –

**Electrostatic forces, dipole-dipole interactions, covalent interactions and Van der Waal’s forces exist in HNO**_{3}. Electrostatic forces are strong between the protons and nitrate ions.**Electrostatic force, Coulombic force and metallic bonding are the intermolecular forces present in Ag**_{2}SO_{4}.

## HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4} reaction enthalpy

**HNO _{3}**

**+**

**Ag**

_{2}SO_{4}**reaction enthalpy is**

**114.36 KJ/mol. The change in enthalpy is positive. The enthalpy values are listed below:**

Reactants and Products | Enthalpy in KJ/mol |
---|---|

HNO_{3} |
-207.36 |

Ag_{2}SO_{4} |
-717.20 |

AgNO_{3} |
-101.78 |

H_{2}SO_{4} |
-814 |

**Enthalpy values**

**∆H**_{f}^{°}(reaction) = ∆H_{f}^{°}(products) – ∆H_{f}^{°}(reactants)

**= -1017.56– (-1131.92)**

**= 114.36 KJ/mol**

## Is HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 } a buffer solution?

**The combination of HNO _{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4} will not function as a buffer solution due to the presence of a strong acid (HNO_{3}).**

## Is HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 } a complete reaction?

**HNO _{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 }is a complete reaction, **

**as two major products are formed – a strong electrolyte and a strong acid.**

## Is HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 } an endothermic reaction?

**The reaction HNO _{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4} is endothermic in nature in terms of thermodynamics first law. Also, the reaction enthalpy is positive as it absorbs heat from surroundings.**

## Is HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 } a redox reaction?

**The reaction between HNO _{3} and Ag_{2}SO_{4} is not a redox reaction, as there is no change in the oxidation state of any element involved in the reaction.**

## Is HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 } a precipitation reaction?

**The reaction HNO _{3} and **

**Ag**

_{2}SO_{4}**is not a precipitation reaction as both the products formed (H**

_{2}SO_{4}and AgNO_{3}) are highly water soluble.## Is HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4} an irreversible reaction?

**HNO _{3} + **

**Ag**

_{2}SO_{4}**is an irreversible reaction because of the shift in the equilibrium of the reaction in the forward direction due to the formation of a strong acid.**

## Is HNO_{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 } a displacement reaction?

**The reaction between HNO _{3} + Ag_{2}SO_{4 }is an example of a double displacement reaction**,

**as in the reaction H**

^{+}is displaced by Ag from HNO_{3 }and Ag^{+}is displaced from Ag_{2}SO_{4}by H^{+}.**Conclusion**

HNO_{3}** _{ }**+

**Ag**

_{ }_{2}SO

_{4 }is an example of an acid formation (H

_{2}SO

_{4}) with a positive entropy. AgNO

_{3}formed in this reaction has antiseptic properties, while H

_{2}SO

_{4}formed is a corrosive acid used in petroleum refining and ore processing.

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