# How does particle movement and energy affect a solid?

## How does particle movement and energy affect a solid?

When a solid is heated the particles gain energy and start to vibrate faster and faster. Initially the structure is gradually weakened which has the effect of expanding the solid. Further heating provides more energy until the particles start to break free of the structure.

## How does particle movement affect a solid?

Solid � In a solid, the attractive forces keep the particles together tightly enough so that the particles do not move past each other. Their vibration is related to their kinetic energy. In the solid the particles vibrate in place.

How does the movement of particles affect the state of matter?

The particle motion determines the state of matter, and each state behaves differently. Particles in a solid vibrate in place, so solid substances are rigid. Liquid particles move more loosely, so they can take the shape of their containers. Gas particles move about freely, so gases fill their containers.

### How does energy affect the state particles are in?

When thermal energy is added to a substance, its temperature increases, which can change its state from solid to liquid (melting), liquid to gas (vaporization), or solid to gas (sublimation).

### What is a solids particle movement?

In a solid, the particles pack together as tightly as possible in a neat and ordered arrangement. The particles are held together too strongly to allow movement from place to place but the particles do vibrate about their position in the structure.

Which changes of state occur between solids and gases?

Processes in which matter changes between liquid and gaseous states are vaporization, evaporation, and condensation. Processes in which matter changes between solid and gaseous states are sublimation and deposition.

#### What happens to the motion of particles in a solid?

If it is cooled the motion of the particles decreases as they lose energy. In a solid the strong attractions between the particles hold them tightly packed together. Even though they are vibrating this is not enough to disrupt the structure. When a solid is heated the particles gain energy and start to vibrate faster and faster.

#### How does the kinetic particle theory explain state changes?

The kinetic particle theory explains the properties of solids, liquids and gases. There are energy changes when changes in state occur. Brownian motion is the random movement of fluid particles. Evaporation is sometimes confused with boiling.

How are particles in solids attracted to each other?

Particles in solids: ▸ Have low kinetic energy. ▸ Are very strongly attracted to each other. ▸ Are closely packed, in a fixed arrangement. ▸ Move by vibrating. Particles in liquids: ▸ Have medium kinetic energy. ▸ Are strongly attracted to each other. ▸ Are closely packed, in a free arrangement.

## Why are particles free to move in space?

Explanation: Particles have high energy and virtually no attraction between them; therefore they are free to move apart. This results in low numbers of particles in a given space. The particle model describes the energy, arrangement and movement of particles in solids, liquids and gases.